Terpenes

Phylex

GK Genetics
Staff member
What Is a Terpene?
Cannabis terpenes are aromatic oils secreted by the resin glands of the plant. These are the same glands that create cannabinoids, the active ingredients in cannabis.

What Do Terpenes Do?
Terpenes are aromatic molecules that help give plants a particular taste or smell. They’re the reason why lavender imparts its signature soothing aroma and why certain marijuana strains have a citrusy, floral, or even woody flavor and scent.

The power of terpenes goes beyond affecting just the nose and tongue, however. While it has always been assumed that cannabinoids were the power behind marijuana’s effects, terpenes play a large role, as well. Terpenes can bind with the same receptors as cannabinoids to create various effects. This makes understanding terpenes a particularly useful bit of cannabis information, as it means that consumers can better customize their high or cannabis health benefits by knowing what terpenes they’re ingesting.

Given that marijuana terpenes differ from one strain to the next, this (in combination with cannabinoids) is why one strain can be wildly stimulating while another may cause intense drowsiness and relaxation. Researchers believe that the combination of cannabinoids and terpenes may be responsible for marijuana's entourage benefits, a phenomenon in which its ingredients work differently (and often better) when consumed together rather than individually. For consumers interested in hemp-derived cannabinoids like CBD, there are hemp terpenes, as well.

Where do terpenes come from?
Cannabis terpenes are produced in the trichomes of the plant. They’re the tiny, hairlike growths that cover the surface of a cannabis plant. Trichomes are the same glands that are responsible for production of cannabinoids such as THC and CBD.

How many terpenes are there?
Estimates range from around 80 to as many as 200 cannabis terpenes. As with cannabinoids, a relatively small number of marijuana terpenes are commonly known. Concentrations of specific terpenes vary from one marijuana strain to the next.

List of Marijuana Terpenes
Marijuana and hemp terpenes not only differ between one strain to the next, they may also differ between harvests of the same strain. Each terpene demonstrates individual characteristics that influence the effects of the plant in which it’s found. While there are dozens of terpenes in marijuana, much of the knowledge and research has focused on the most common ones.

Myrcene
The most common terpene found in cannabis, myrcene imparts an earthy essence that’s full of herbs and cloves. Myrcene is also found in mangoes and herbs such as basil, lemongrass, and thyme. It’s the terpene responsible for marijuana’s sedative “couch-lock” effects (effects that are more noticeable in cannabis strains with myrcene levels of 0.5% and higher). It’s also known for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects

There is some speculation that myrcene increases the absorption and activation of THC. Internet rumors suggest that eating a mango 45 minutes before using marijuana can boost the effects of the THC. There are no studies to prove this, however.

Linalool
If linalool has a floral, lavender-like fragrance, that’s probably because in addition to the cannabis plant, it’s also found in lavender. Anyone familiar with lavender essential oil will be extremely familiar with the many benefits of linalool; they include anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and analgesic properties There are also studies investigating the use of linalool in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Terpinolene
Like linalool, terpinolene relaxes with its gently sweet floral fragrance, but it also imparts herbal and woody notes. This terpene is an excellent sedative, as well as being antibacterial and having antioxidant properties. Besides cannabis, terpinolene is found in nutmeg, cumin, apples, conifers, and lilacs.

Humulene
Known for its anti-inflammatory properties, humulene gives off a soothing earthy, woody scent. This terpene can also be found in coriander, cloves, and basil, as well as in hops.

Ocimene
A cannabis terpene that combines floral and herbal aromas with that of pine, ocimene is excellent at combatting intruders such as viruses and bacteria. It also works as a decongestant. It’s found in mint, basil, and parsley, as well as in pepper and mangoes.

Caryophyllene
Any cannabis strain that has a heavy spicy scent and flavor likely has potent amounts of caryophyllene in it. This terpene is found in black pepper, cinnamon, and cloves, and as expected, it imparts lots of spice with its peppery, woody, and clove-heavy aroma. Caryophyllene is good for easing anxiety and stress, as well as quelling pain.

Guaiol
Valued for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, guaiol has a definite piney aroma that draws comparisons to pinene (which is fitting as it’s also found in cypress pines). It’s also an effective insecticide. Unlike pinene, guaiol is not an oil; rather, it’s a sesquiterpenoid alcohol.

Limonene
Famous for its citrusy flavor and scent, limonene is also found in fruit rinds, as well as in peppermint, juniper, and rosemary. It has anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, and anti-tumor properties, as well as being an anti-inflammatory and analgesic.

Pinene
As may be guessed by its name, pinene is most commonly found in pine needles and imparts a definitive pine aroma. It’s also present in herbs such as rosemary, parsley, dill, and basil. Pinene can be used to lessen some of the effects of THC. It also has analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects as well as being excellent at treating asthma.

Bisabolol
Also found in chamomile, bisabolol has a sweet, floral aroma that makes it a light and gentle addition to the lineup of marijuana terpenes. It has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties that make it excellent for pain relief. It’s also an anti-microbial, as well as an antioxidant.

Camphene
Also commonly found in strongly-scented substances such as camphor oil, turpentine, as well as ginger and citronella, camphene imparts a scent that contains both fir needles and a woody essence. Studies suggest that it may be helpful at controlling cholesterol.

Geraniol
If the sweet, floral scent of geraniol is reminiscent of geraniums, that’s because this terpene is also found in that kind of flower. This makes it one of the more popular terpenes for use in cosmetics and bath products. Among its many benefits, geraniol is neuroprotective, as well as having anti-tumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-viral properties.

Valencene
As valencene is found in Valencia oranges, it’s unsurprising that it has a citrusy scent. An excellent anti-inflammatory, it’s also been proven to be effective at repelling insects.

Terpineol
Terpineol is a marijuana terpene frequently found in strains with high levels of pinene, and it shares pinene’s fresh, piney scent. It can be found in a diverse variety of trees and plants that run from pine trees and eucalyptus sap to lilac flowers. Some of its therapeutic properties include anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and antibiotic effects. It’s also a calming treatment for anxiety.

Pulegone
Pulegone is known for its peppermint aroma and is found most abundantly in rosemary. It’s been studied for its fever-reducing and sedative properties. Pulegone can facilitate communication between nerve cells in the brain by breaking down the chemical acetylcholine. It’s also good for counteracting the short-term memory loss that frequently comes with THC ingestion.

Sabinene
Valued for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-fungal properties, sabinene has a citrusy, spicy aroma with notes of pine. Besides cannabis, it’s found in black pepper, basil, Norway spruce, and Myristica fragrant trees (the trees from which nutmeg seeds are produced).
 

Dino Party

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Interesting chart.

It would be useful to figure out what terpenes or combination thereof produce the skunk aroma, there are a variety of skunky smells, Anybody have any insight?
combining linalool, myrcene, and caryophyllene has givin my carts a nice skunky taste. a little sour, a little funky, but definetly that skunky flavor that comes with those buds. The aroma not so much, but I dont think vaping carry's the same aroma.

just my two grungy pocket pennies.
 
So does anyone have an opinion on aerobic bacteria and its affect on cannabis flavors and smells during the curing process. I know the bacteria break down the chlorophyll and sugars, but feel like an effect has to be taking place with the other known and unknown compounds. This has piqued my interest in the old malawi cob curing method and the fermenting of cannabis.
 

spyralout

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Staff member
So does anyone have an opinion on aerobic bacteria and its affect on cannabis flavors and smells during the curing process. I know the bacteria break down the chlorophyll and sugars, but feel like an effect has to be taking place with the other known and unknown compounds. This has piqued my interest in the old malawi cob curing method and the fermenting of cannabis.
Is this an anaerobic process? Similar to how some Colombian or other old weed was dried/cured/stored back in the day? The high is supposed to be different than aerobic cure methods, i am curious as well to what the smell and taste of Malawi cob would be. Or any bud using that method.
 
Is this an anaerobic process? Similar to how some Colombian or other old weed was dried/cured/stored back in the day? The high is supposed to be different than aerobic cure methods, i am curious as well to what the smell and taste of Malawi cob would be. Or any bud using that method.
Yes once you cut off the oxygen then the anaerobic bacteria would come in to play more. I have been getting into fermenting lately and starting to wonder about the affects this would have on the high , as I have never tried the cobs.
 
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